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    Chinas present and future lunar exploration program - Since the beginning of the 21st century, the pace of lunar exploration has accelerated, with more than a dozen probes having undertaken scientific exploration of the Moon. Prominent among these have been the robotic "Chang’E" (CE) missions of the China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP). We discuss technological and scientific goals and achievements for the four completed, and four planned, CE missions, and longer-term goals and plans of the...
    Feed Source: science.sciencemag.org

    Analysis of lunar samples: Implications for planet formation and evolution - The analysis of lunar samples returned to Earth by the Apollo and Luna missions changed our view of the processes involved in planet formation. The data obtained on lunar samples brought to light the importance during planet growth of highly energetic collisions that lead to global-scale melting. This violent birth determines the initial structure and long-term evolution of planets. Once past its formative era, the lunar surface has served as a ...
    Feed Source: science.sciencemag.org

    String patterns in the doped Hubbard model - Understanding strongly correlated quantum many-body states is one of the most difficult challenges in modern physics. For example, there remain fundamental open questions on the phase diagram of the Hubbard model, which describes strongly correlated electrons in solids. In this work, we realize the Hubbard Hamiltonian and search for specific patterns within the individual images of many realizations of strongly correlated ultracold fermions in a...
    Feed Source: science.sciencemag.org

    Temporal color mixing and dynamic beam shaping with silicon metasurfaces - Metasurfaces offer the possibility to shape optical wavefronts with an ultracompact, planar form factor. However, most metasurfaces are static, and their optical functions are fixed after the fabrication process. Many modern optical systems require dynamic manipulation of light, and this is now driving the development of electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces. We can realize metasurfaces with fast (>105 hertz), electrically tunable pixels t...
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    Millennial storage of near-Moho magma - The lower crust plays a critical role in the processing of mantle melts and the triggering of volcanic eruptions by supply of magma from greater depth. Our understanding of the deeper parts of magmatic systems is obscured by overprinting of deep signals by shallow processes. We provide a direct estimate of magma residence time in basaltic systems of the deep crust by studying ultramafic nodules from the Borgarhraun eruption in Iceland. Modeling ...
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    Reconfigurable ferromagnetic liquid droplets - Solid ferromagnetic materials are rigid in shape and cannot be reconfigured. Ferrofluids, although reconfigurable, are paramagnetic at room temperature and lose their magnetization when the applied magnetic field is removed. Here, we show a reversible paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transformation of ferrofluid droplets by the jamming of a monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles assembled at the water-oil interface. These ferromagnetic liquid droplets...
    Feed Source: science.sciencemag.org

    Quantum scale anomaly and spatial coherence in a 2D Fermi superfluid - Quantum anomalies are violations of classical scaling symmetries caused by divergences that appear in the quantization of certain classical theories. Although they play a prominent role in the quantum field theoretical description of many-body systems, their influence on experimental observables is difficult to discern. In this study, we discovered a distinctive manifestation of a quantum anomaly in the momentum-space dynamics of a two-dimension...
    Feed Source: science.sciencemag.org

    Topological molecular nanocarbons: All-benzene catenane and trefoil knot - The generation of topologically complex nanocarbons can spur developments in science and technology. However, conventional synthetic routes to interlocked molecules require heteroatoms. We report the synthesis of catenanes and a molecular trefoil knot consisting solely of para-connected benzene rings. Characteristic fluorescence of a heterocatenane associated with fast energy transfer between two rings was observed, and the topological chirality...
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    New Jurassic mammaliaform sheds light on early evolution of mammal-like hyoid bones - We report a new Jurassic docodontan mammaliaform found in China that is preserved with the hyoid bones. Its basihyal, ceratohyal, epihyal, and thyrohyal bones have mobile joints and are arranged in a saddle-shaped configuration, as in the mobile linkage of the hyoid apparatus of extant mammals. These are fundamentally different from the simple hyoid rods of nonmammaliaform cynodonts, which were likely associated with a wide, nonmuscularized thro...
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    Use of a scaffold peptide in the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived natural products - Genome sequencing of environmental bacteria allows identification of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding unusual combinations of enzymes that produce unknown natural products. We identified a pathway in which a ribosomally synthesized small peptide serves as a scaffold for nonribosomal peptide extension and chemical modification. Amino acids are transferred to the carboxyl terminus of the peptide through adenosine triphosphate and amino acyl-tRN...
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    Seasonal to multiannual marine ecosystem prediction with a global Earth system model - Climate variations have a profound impact on marine ecosystems and the communities that depend upon them. Anticipating ecosystem shifts using global Earth system models (ESMs) could enable communities to adapt to climate fluctuations and contribute to long-term ecosystem resilience. We show that newly developed ESM-based marine biogeochemical predictions can skillfully predict satellite-derived seasonal to multiannual chlorophyll fluctuations in...
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    IRE1{alpha}-XBP1 signaling in leukocytes controls prostaglandin biosynthesis and pain - Inositol-requiring enzyme 1[α] (IRE1[α])–X-box binding protein spliced (XBP1) signaling maintains endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis while controlling immunometabolic processes. Yet, the physiological consequences of IRE1α–XBP1 activation in leukocytes remain unexplored. We found that induction of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2/Cox-2) and prostaglandin E synthase (Ptges/mPGES-1) was compromised in ...
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    Conservation, acquisition, and functional impact of sex-biased gene expression in mammals - Sex differences abound in human health and disease, as they do in other mammals used as models. The extent to which sex differences are conserved at the molecular level across species and tissues is unknown. We surveyed sex differences in gene expression in human, macaque, mouse, rat, and dog, across 12 tissues. In each tissue, we identified hundreds of genes with conserved sex-biased expression—findings that, combined with genomic analyse...
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    Comment on "Earth and Moon impact flux increased at the end of the Paleozoic" - Mazrouei et al. (Reports, 18 January 2019, p. 253) found a nonuniform distribution of crater ages on Earth and the Moon, concluding that the impact flux increased about 290 million years ago. We show that the apparent increase on Earth can be explained by erosion, whereas that on the Moon may be an artifact of their calibration method. ...
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    Amyloid {beta} oligomers constrict human capillaries in Alzheimers disease via signaling to pericytes - Cerebral blood flow is reduced early in the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because most of the vascular resistance within the brain is in capillaries, this could reflect dysfunction of contractile pericytes on capillary walls. We used live and rapidly fixed biopsied human tissue to establish disease relevance, and rodent experiments to define mechanism. We found that in humans with cognitive decline, amyloid β (Aβ) constricts...
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    Response to Comment on "Earth and Moon impact flux increased at the end of the Paleozoic" - Hergarten et al. interpret our results in terms of erosion and uncertain calibration, rather than requiring an increase in impact flux. Geologic constraints indicate low long-term erosion rates on stable cratons where most craters with diameters of ≥20 kilometers occur. We statistically test their proposed recalibration of the lunar crater ages and find that it is disfavored relative to our original calibration. ...
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